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What is meant by bonds in stock market

What is meant by bonds in stock market



What is meant by bonds in the stock market?


Bonds are a common investment. However, much remains a mystery to many investors. So let's find out what a bond is and how it can benefit your investment portfolio.

A bond is simply a loan given by an investor to a company or government. By issuing a bond, a company or government borrows money from investors, who in turn are paid interest on the money lent to them.

Companies and governments often issue bonds to fund new projects or ongoing expenses. Some investors use bonds in hopes of preserving the money they hold while generating additional income.

Bonds are often viewed as a less risky alternative to stocks and are sometimes used to diversify a portfolio.

Consider this example. The city of Fairview wants to build a new baseball stadium, so it decided to issue bonds to raise money.

Each bond is a loan for $1,000, which Fairview promises to pay back in 10 years. To make this loan more attractive to investors, Fairview agrees to pay an annual interest rate of 5%, also known in the bond world as the coupon rate. An investor buys a bond at the face value of $1,000.

Now, let's fast forward. The City of Fairview pays the investor $50 each year. These regular interest rates continue for the duration of the bond, which is 10 years. Once the bond reaches maturity, the investor redeems his bond, and Fairview returns his original investment of $1,000.

This bond was a good deal for both the city and our investor. Fairview got the money needed to build the stadium. The investor received regular interest payments and a return on the original investment.

Because a bond offers regularly scheduled payments and a return of invested principal, bonds are often viewed as a more predictable and stable form of investment. Compare the regular payment of the bond with the experience of owning a stock.

As with stocks, gains and losses are driven by market forces and are generally less predictable. Of course, like any investment, bonds are not without risk. One risk that bond investors face is the possibility that the issuer defaults on paying principal.

This is known as default risk. Typically, bonds with higher default risk also come with higher coupon rates. The amount of risk mostly depends on the financial stability of the issuer.

For example, most governments are generally considered stable issuers and issue bonds with relatively low coupon rates.

Corporate bonds generally represent a greater risk of default, as companies can and do go bankrupt. That's why corporate bonds often offer higher coupon rates. Many credit rating agencies rank bonds differently.

This can help bond investors gauge the financial strength of the bond issuer. These rating agencies often use different criteria to measure risk.

That's why it's a good idea to compare ratings when considering a particular bond. And keep in mind, rating agencies are not always accurate. Therefore, before investing, do thorough research about a bond and its risks. Another risk to consider is interest rate risk.

There is the risk that interest rates will rise and any bonds you own will become worthless if sold before the maturity date. Eventually, when interest rates rise, more investors allocate their money to new, higher interest-rate bonds.

If you want to offload a lower interest rate bond to take advantage of these new rates, you'll need to sell your bond at a discount to make it a worthwhile purchase for another investor.

Capital protection and income generation are two ways bonds can be part of a diversified portfolio.

Many investors use a mix of stocks and bonds to further their investment goals. And because bonds are moved differently from stocks, they can help enhance or protect portfolio returns.

Keep in mind that this discussion has shown you a simple way that investors can use bonds and consider only certain risks.

Like all investments, bonds are complex and carry a variety of uses and risks. Before you invest in bonds, it is important that you invest in your financial education.


Also read: How to Identify Stock Trend Changes 

Also read: How many types of mutual funds are there in India

Also read: How to invest for retirement at age 60 



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